We examine some relevant and existing academic literature on effective adverse selection and moral hazard optimal mitigation strategies in this review. Each mitigation strategy has advantages and disadvantages. As a result, the goal is to maximize the net benefit of mitigation strategies. In practice, the optimal risk mitigation strategy equates marginal costs to marginal benefits by minimizing the occurrence of adverse effects resulting from decision failures while maximizing the enterprise's profit producing capacity.
Adverse selection and moral hazard are terms used in risk management, managerial economics, and policy sciences to describe situations in which one party to a market transaction is at a competitive disadvantage due to asymmetric information. Adverse selection occurs in market transactions when there is a lack of symmetric information between sellers and buyers prior to agreements, whereas moral hazard occurs when there is asymmetric information between the two parties and material changes in behavior of one party after agreements have been concluded.
Adverse selection occurs, for example, when one party to a contract or negotiation has material information relevant to the contract or negotiation that the other party does not; this asymmetric material information leads the party lacking relevant and material information to make decisions that cause it to suffer adverse effects. As a result, adverse selection occurs when one party makes decisions without having all of the relevant material information, altering the risk allocation between the parties to the transactions.
Asymmetric information occurs when one party has better or more materially relevant information than the other party during a transaction. As a result, when a party has asymmetric information, they may make an unfavorable choice. Adverse selection occurs when the actual risk exceeds the risk known at the time the agreement was reached. Accepting terms or receiving prices that do not accurately reflect actual risk exposure harms one party. Bounded rationality and cognitive biases associated with most competitive information use may exacerbate the consequences of asymmetric information. Moral hazard, on the other hand, occurs when a party conceals or misrepresents material relevant information and changes behavior after the agreement is signed and is shielded from the consequences of the risks arising from the material change in behavior.
According to economic and policy sciences, decision makers must not only know, but also understand and anticipate the consequences of asymmetric information in order to mitigate the risks of adverse effects associated with adverse selection and moral hazard. Classic examples come from academia and the insurance industry.
Non-selective academic programs attract a disproportionate number of students with a prior academic background and profile that puts them at a higher risk for academic success, retention, graduation, and placement. Indeed, this is a classic example of the negative consequences of adverse selection and moral hazard.
Non-selective admission, for example, combines recruitment and selection, resulting in adverse selection. Refusal to attend classes, failure to complete assignments, failure to take notes in class, critical listening, disruptive and inattentive behavior in class are all examples of post-enrollment moral hazard that put non-selective students at a higher risk for retention, graduation, and placement. Please keep in mind that it is not the change in behavior that causes moral hazard in this case. Moral hazard arises from the discounted consequences of changed behavior.
Because their operating budget is driven by enrollment, some of these non-selective academic programs are increasingly willing to accept higher risks associated with adverse selection and moral hazard. As a result, enrollment is a more pressing need in the short run than retention, graduation, and placement rates. The emphasis on enrollment is necessary, but it is also short-sighted and misguided, because these benchmarks and indices are interconnected, circular, and cumulative in practice.
In the insurance industry, insured healthy females of childbearing age and healthy middle-aged females who seek creative ways to become pregnant present problems of adverse selection and moral hazard. Furthermore, insurance applicants whose actual risks exceed the risks known to the insurance company are potentially interesting case studies. By offering coverage at premiums that do not accurately reflect its actual risk exposure, the insurance company suffers negative consequences.
Strategies for Risk Mitigation and Some Practical Advice
Please seek specific advice from a qualified professional. The general guidelines below are based on a review of existing academic literature, cumulative professional practice, and best industry practices. To summarize, adverse selection and moral hazard as a result of asymmetric information expose transaction parties to excessively high risks for which they are not adequately and appropriately compensated. As a result, it is critical for parties to take all steps possible to mitigate the risks of adverse effects resulting from asymmetric information and the resulting decision failures.
Managerial economic principles and best industry practices recommend screening and sorting to reduce adverse selection, as well as incentive contracts to reduce moral hazard. Strategic intelligence systems (SIS) that provide relevant, accurate, and timely identification and quantification of risk factors are also strongly advised.
The use of aggregate limits of liability and policy riders that prohibit post-contract material unilateral actions and cap aggregate financial risks to parties is strongly recommended in risk management. Dispositive disclosure, discovery, monitoring, random inspection, and verification are also strongly advised.
Finally, because adverse selection is caused by hidden characteristics and profiles, and moral hazard is caused by hidden actions, decision systems and strategic intelligence systems must be transparent and provide relevant, accurate, and timely information to facilitate decisions based on known probability of risk occurrence and allocation between the parties to the transactions with due and appropriate compensation."""